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The ancient Bharat, modern India, was run as a corporation under the guidance of an elite Brahmin varna whose selfless ideation had assured peace and plenty around the globe, thanks to the pioneering discoveries in all fields of human endeavor. Peace was maintained by the Kshatriya varna that permitted the Vaishya varna to engage in the manufacture and trade of luxury items such that most of world bullion poured into the coffers of Bharat over a period of 3000 years and more. Most importantly, all of this was achieved without slavery or force and freely shared around the globe such that Bharat of old was truly a world civilization. Herder was to praise Brahmins:
“The Brahmins have formed their people to such a degree of gentleness, courtesy, temperance and chastity…that Europeans frequently appear, in comparison with them, as beastly, drunken or mad”.
Lord McCauley declared in his speech of 2 February 1835 CE to the British Parliament (authenticity uncertain):
"I have travelled across the length and breadth of India and I have not seen one person who is a beggar, who is a thief. Such wealth I have seen in this country, such high moral values, people of such caliber, that I do not think we would ever conquer this country, unless we break the very backbone of this nation, which is her spiritual and cultural heritage, and, therefore, I propose that we replace her old and ancient education system, her culture, for if the Indians think that all that is foreign and English is good and greater than their own, they will lose their self-esteem, their native self-culture and they will become what we want them, a truly dominated nation".
The demise of the marvel called Bharat was precipitated by two different events. Islamic Arabs were to decimate some 70 million people, loot the riches at will, and turn the land into an intellectual desert. British were to annihilate another 60 million people and loot some ten trillion dollars in the name of civilization. Since 1947, the dogmatic religions have joined hands with atheist Communism for the final decimation of Hinduism and fragment Indian unity into pockets of manageable influence. In addition, the Hindu, educated in the British tradition, despises his own past and falls for the hollow stereotypes of modernity, internationalism and the like. Muslims are doing their best to turn India into an Islamic state by conscious demographic shift.
Now that BJP has won with absolute majority, it is at least theoreyically possible to revive Vedic marvel of prosperity, secularism and social harmony for all through Hindutva. To this end, it is necessary to rewrite school text books for weeding out demonizing antihistory fed by the previous regime and to expose the citizens to factual history of our great Vedic patrimony. People in India need to introspect and be proud of their past accomplishments instead rejecting them due to colonial manipulations, distortions and lies all of which keep Indian looking westwards for inspiration. A pro-Bharat press and media need to be created to interpret world events for Indo-centrism, much as they do in Western democracies. We need to do away with special status for minorities, article 370 for Jammu and Kashmir, financial support for conversion into Abrahamic faiths, and so forth.
India is the most important geopolitical space for future world survival.
Islam is being marketed as a 'religion of peace' but the incomparable hatred for non-believers is personified thus:
“Soon shall we cast terror into the hearts of the unbelievers”. Qur’an goes on to say:
Qur’an 9:5. Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
Qur’an 47:4. When you meet the unbelievers in the Jihad strike off their heads and, when you have laid them low, bind your captives firmly. Then grant them their freedom or take ransom from them, until War shall lay down her burdens.
Qur’an 73:12. We have in store for the unbelievers heavy fetters and a blazing fire, choking food and harrowing torment: on the day when the earth shall quiver with all its mountains and the mountains crumble into heaps of shifting sand.
Qur’an 22:19-22:23. Garments of fire have been prepared for the unbelievers. Scalding water shall be poured upon their heads, melting their skins and that which is in their bellies. They shall be lashed rods of iron. Whenever, in their anguish, they try to escape from Hell, back they shall be dragged, and will be told: 'Taste the torment of the Conflagration!'
Qur’an 98:1-8. The unbelievers among the People of the Book (Jews) and the pagans (Hindus) shall burn forever in the fire of Hell. They are the vilest of all creatures.
Qur’an 9:73. Prophet, make war on the unbelievers (Hindus) and the hypocrites (Jews) and deal rigorously with them. Hell shall be their Home: an evil fate.
Qur’an 9:29. Fight those who believe neither in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
Qur'an; 3:149-3:151. O YOU who have attained to faith! If you pay heed to those who are bent on denying the truth, they will cause you to turn back on your heels, and you will be the losers. Nay, but God alone is your Lord Supreme, and His is the best succor. Into the hearts of those who are bent on denying the truth we shall cast dread in return for their ascribing divinity, side by side with God, to other beings - [something] for which He has never bestowed any warrant from on high; and their goal is the fire - and how evil that abode of evildoers!
Qur'an (40:71-72) - When the fetters and the chains shall be on their necks; they shall be dragged into boiling water, then in the fire shall they be burned. Qur'an (22:19-21) - But as for those who disbelieve, garments of fire will be cut out for them; boiling fluid will be poured down on their heads; Whereby that which is in their bellies, and their skins too, will be melted; And for them are hooked rods of iron. Qur'an (4:56) - Those who disbelieve Our revelations, We shall expose them to the Fire. As often as their skins are consumed We shall exchange them for fresh skins that they may taste the torment eternally ! Allah is ever Mighty, Wise. Qur'an (56:92-94) - But if he is of the rejecters, then the welcome will be boiling water and roasting at hell-fire. Qur'an (9:73) - O Prophet! Strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be unyielding to them; and their abode is hell, and evil is the destination. Qur'an (66:9) - O Prophet! Strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be stern with them. Hell will be their home, a hapless journey's end. Qur'an (8:55) - Surely the vilest of animals in Allah's sight are those who disbelieve. Qur'an (9:30) - And the Jews say Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah... Allah (Himself) fighteth against them. How perverse are they! Qur'an (4:52) - Those (Christians) are they whom Allah hath cursed. Qur'an (4:47) - O you (Jews) who have been given the Book! Believe that which We have revealed, verifying what you have, before We alter faces then turn them on their backs, or curse them as We cursed the violators of the Sabbath, and the command of Allah shall be executed. Qur'an (5:59-60, also 2:64) - Jews are descended from swine and apes, wicked Jews were transformed by Allah in the past.
Qur'an (8:39) - Allah wished to confirm the truth by his words: Wipe the Infidels out to the last. Qur'an 8:39.
Will Durant summed it up like this:
"The Islamic conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precious good, whose delicate complex of order and freedom, culture and peace, can at any moment be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within".
By and large there have been few religions in the world as deadly to men as that of Muhammad. (Alexis de tocqueville).
The dirty and evil religion of Islam above all others was founded upon the sword. (Winston Churchill 1899).
See also: The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India by S.R. Goel
Islamic invasions claimed some 60-70 million lives in Bharat alone and perhaps 300 million around the globe
Epistemology of Bharat
During its 10,000 years of history, modern India was known by name although Bharat was adopted officially after independence in 1947, along with India imposed by the British. Tradition speaks of three different apparitions in three different yugas (ages) all of which carry the name Bharata. The Bharats were a venerable and ancient tribe mentioned in the 3rd mandala of RigVeda, whereas the 7th Mandala informs us that they were on the victorious side during the Battle of the Ten Kings.
The first Bharat was born in Satyuga as the son of Rishabh deva, also known as Adinath, who was designated as the first Jain Tirthankara, and synonymous with Shiva in the Hindu tradition, as desribed by Jinasena in Adipurana. He sired 100 sons and the eldest Bharat carried the chakra (wheel) in the aromory that proclaimed him a cakravartin (emperor); his son assured continuation of the Iksvaku dynasty. The cakravartin was thus an ancient political concept who was to conquer by means of superior moral and political powers in all directions (digvijay) to unite the land and peoples under a single righteous kingdom. Bharata subjugated rival kings without violence, by compassion (daya), divine wisdom (Brahma-jñana) and penance (tapas). Adinath’s youngest son Marich became lord Mahavira or the 24th teerthankar. Ashtapad trecords that idols of all early teerthankars are to be found in a Jain temple inside a mountain cave in Mansarovar region.
The second Bharata was born in the Tretayuga as the son of King Dasharatha of Ayodhya, and younger brother of Lord Rama. Bharata here epitomizes dharma, idealism, family values, truth, righteousness, filial love and duty, as epitomized in Ramayana that was to transform peoples and cultures around the globe.
In the Adi Parva (The Book of the Beginning) of the Maha Bharat epic, the thirs Bharat is mentioned as the son of King Dushyanta and Shakuntala and thus a descendant of the Lunar Dynasty of the Kshatriya varna. The story goes like this: A heavenly nymph called Maneka was sent by Indra, to distract the great sage Vishvamitra from his deep penance. She conceived but Vishvamitra distanced himself from the child and mother to return to his earlier vocation. Maneka left the newborn baby on the banks of the Malini River, some 10 km west of Kotdwara in the Shivalik range. The child was found by a Rishi or Sage called Kanva surrounded and protected by birds (Shakunton in Sanskrit), and so she was named Shakuntala. King Dushyanta encountered her when she was nursing her pet deer wounded by the King and fell in love with her. Before departing for the capital, the King gave her a ring as a memory of their encounter but never came back. In due course, Shakuntala conceived and the Sage Kanwa named the boy Sarvadamana (the subduer of all) because, even at the age of six, he was able to seize and restrain wild animals. Shakuntala reached King's palace with her son and after much discourse the King accepted her as his wife. A celestial messenger now advised the King Dushyanta:
abhūtir eṣā kas tyajyāj jīvañ jīvantam ātmajam
śākuntalaṃ mahātmānaṃ dauḥṣantiṃ bhara paurava
bhartavyo 'yaṃ tvayā yasmād asmākaṃ vacanād api
tasmād bhavatv ayaṃ nāmnā bharato nāma te sutaḥ
(Therefore, O thou of Puru's race, cherish thy high-souled son born of (Queen) Shakuntala and because this child (Bharat) is to be cherished by thee even at our word, therefore shall this thy son be known by the name of Bharat (the cherished or the supported).
Thereafter, Sarvadamana came to be called Bharat who conquered the entire Asian heartland and reached the top of ‘Meru’ or ‘Sumeru’ mountain (the center of the world and the tallest mountain in Hindu mythology). There he planted a flag but he saw numerous such flags of world conquerors before him. This made him feel very insignificant and he took the diksha to attain nirvana. Bharatavarsha represented the ideal of great empires dominated by social harmony, truth, knowledge, wealth and prosperity. Bharatvarsha, is defined thus in Vishnu Purana:
uttaraṃ yatsamudrasya himādreścaiva dakṣiṇam
varṣaṃ tadbhārataṃ nāma bhāratī yatra santatiḥ
(The country that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bharatam; there dwell the descendants of Bharat).
According MahaBharat, as well as numerous puranas, Bharat Empire included the whole territory of the Indian subcontinent, including the present day Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Iran, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, North-west Tibet, Nepal and Bangladesh. This corresponds to the approximate extent of the historical Maurya Empire under Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka (4th to 3rd BC). Rig Veda states that the main Bharat region was located from Parushni (Ravi) in the west to Ganga in the east, from Afghanistan (Kabul or Gandhara or the Druhyus) in the west, across the Sarayu river in the east down to the Vindhyas and the Narmada river (Yadu country) in the south; Anus were centered around Chenab. Kashmir may have been named after the sage Kashyapa, whereas Afghanistan is mentioned as Balkh or Bactria inhabited by shudras or lower classes. Bharat ruled virtuously, earned great fame and was bestowed with the titles of Chakravarti (emperor) as well as Sarvabhauma.
Bharat Chakravarti also figures in Vishnu Purana (2,1,31), Vayu Purana (33,52), Linga Purana(1,47,23), Brahminda Purana (14,5,62), Agni Purana (107,11-12), Skanda Purana (37,57) and Markandaya Purana (50,41) as also in sacred Jain texts. Foreign sources have described Bharat as well. Herodotus (440 BC) defines the land thus:
“Eastward of India lies a tract which is entirely sand. Indeed, of all the inhabitants of Asia, concerning whom anything is known, the Indians dwell nearest to the east and the rising of the Sun”.
Megasthenes (300 BC) was to write in Indika:
“India then being four-sided in plan, the side which looks to the Orient and that to the South is the Great Sea; that towards the Arctic is divided by the mountain chain of Hemodus from Scythia, inhabited by that tribe of Scythians who are called Sakai, and on the fourth side, turned towards the West, the Indus marks the boundary, the biggest or nearly so of all rivers after the Nile”.
Arrian (140 CE) defines in Indoi, Indou:
“The boundary of the land of India towards the north is Mount Taurus (Caucasus). The western part of India is bounded by the river Indus right down to the ocean. Towards the south this ocean bounds the land of India, and eastward the sea itself is the boundary”.
Subsequent dynasties stem from the great law giver Manu who had ten children; the eldest Ikshvaku was the founder of the Suryavansha or the solar line of kings. Manu’s daughter Ila married Budha (mercury), son of Chandra (Moon), thus founding the Chandravansha or the lunar line. In one tradition, Puru, Bharat, Rama, Kuru, and Pandavas, have been suggested to have come 7, 43, 65, 71 and 94 generations after Manu. Yayavati, 6th in line after Manu, had five sons who ruled five regions of Bharat: Puru (central, Yamuna Ganga), Anu (north Punjab, Bengal and Bihar), Druhyu (west or northwest Gandhara and Afghanistan), Turvasa (Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and the ancestors of Dravidians and Yavanas) and Yadu (southwest, Gujarat, Rajasthan). Yadu’s descendants are known as Yadavas whose most famous elite Krishna was Yadu’s 87th descendant. Sita (means furrow) belongs to the Videha dynasty and is a cousin of Rama 61 generations removed; Jains and Buddhists regard Rama and Sita as brothers and sisters. Thirty generations separate Rama from the Bharat battle; Buddha is also a descendant of Ikshvaku.
Bharatavarsha from Sanskrit literally means the continent (‘varsha’) that is dedicated/devoted (‘rata’) to light or wisdom (‘bha’) = ‘devoted to light/knowledge’. Bharat could also mean ‘The Cherished’ where Bha = Bhava (Expression), Ra = Raga (Melody Notes) and Ta = Tala (Rythmic pattern). The Bharats were an Aryan tribe mentioned in the Rig Veda, notably participating in the Battle of Ten Kings. A version of the Bhagavata Purana says that the Name Bharat stems from Jata Bharatha who appears in the fifth canto of the Vishnu Purana (2.3.1). Our Vedic Rishi ancestors devoted themselves to the quest for the eternal truth and ultimate reality, kevala jnana, satchidananda. Eventually, he three Bharats (two kings, one prince) were to unite all of land mass during Satayuga, Tretayuga and Dwaparayuga as divine Bharat Mata, the very first nation of humanity. Bharatvarsha was to give birth to the loftiest of all ideals in human ideation that were to form the core human history for all ages. The indellible achievements they left on the sands of Time formed the very principles of pioneering discoveries in all aspects of human endeavor such that Bharat was to be envied as a golden Chrysee that invited perpetual raids from an impoverished world.
Sanskrit Language Captures Eternal Cosmic Vibrations
Man’s progress from savagery to civilization is intimately bound up with abstract ideation which permits a human beings to rise above the chaos of primitive sensations and to fashion an ordered cosmos. This is causally linked to the development of language that forms the building bloc of human psyche and subconscious. The greatest advances towards abstract ideation were made by the Vedic Aryans, not by Babylonians Greeks, Egyptians or others. Sanskrit words personify objects, actions, and attributes related to the underlying reality, perceived by the ear in the same way as visual forms are perceived by the eye. Sanskrit personifies the cosmic vibration revealed to the rishis as sound, audible to the human ears, and stemming from the Divine word OM (AUM). All creation stemmed from AUM and will return to it at the end of time. Lord Krishna proclaimed:
“I am the father of the Universe, the mother, the support and the grandsire. I am the object of knowledge, the purifier and the syllable OM. I am also the Rig Veda, Sama Veda and the Yajur Veda”.
In Brahmanagrantha we are told nine times that:
“Word is God, the speech is God, whatever is speech is God, God is the supreme space of speech”.
The Bible was to observe much later:
“In the beginning was the Word, the Word was with God, the Word was God” (St. John 1:1).
This idea was echoed later by some Greek philosophers where logos ‘word’, or speech’, was the governing principle of the universe.
According to Shabda Brahma, attributed to Bhartrhari 450 CE:
“The Word-Principle is Brahman, God itself…The purification of the Word is the very siddhi, attainment of God, the Supreme Self”.
In Surat Shabda Yoga, initiation by an Outer Living Satguru (Sat = true, Guru = teacher) is required to reconnect the soul to the Shabda and stationing the Inner Shabda Master (the Radiant Form of the Master) at the third eye chakra. A derivative view was held by tantrists who ascribed incarnate divine powers to sacred Sanskrit letters that characterized the seven chakras in Kundalini yoga. Consequently, language became the metaphor for the eternal truth like a divine spirit “descending and embodying itself in phenomena…” In Shabdapurvayoga, liberation was to be attained through the purification of one’s everyday language from grammatically incorrect forms.
The eternal sound of creation, captured as the Sanskrit language, underwent systematization by a number of sages at great centers of learning in ancient Bharat. Yasks’s Nirkuta appears to be the very first attempt at an objective structural analysis of a language. Sanskrit grammatical tradition vakarana, one of the six Vedanga disciplines, began in late Vedic Bharat and culminated in the Ashtadhyayi of Panini, which consists of 3990 sutras, composed around 400 BC. Panini’s grammar is based on 14 Shiva sutras (aphorisms) such that the whole Matrika (alphabet) is abbreviated by Pratyahara. Panini started out with 1700 consonants, nouns, pronouns, verbs, prefixes and suffixes to construct compound words in a mathematical manner where phonetics and grammar produced a language far more perfect than anything else available anywhere. He laid down 4000 grammatical rules and the language was now called Samskrta, meaning perfected or refined. Its most striking feature consisted of an objective resolution of speech and language into their component elements according to their function. Sound in each group of alphabets was arranged according to the place where they are produced in the mouth (guttural, palatals, cerebrals, dentals and labials). Starting from simple roots, complex words grew by the addition of prefixes and suffixes. Rules were worked out to defining the conditions according to which consonants and vowels influence each other, undergo change, or drop out. Panini mentions Greek script so contacts between Bharat and Greece existed long before Alexander.
The Sanskrit grammar of Panini, the earliest and the most perfect of its kind in the world, gave rise to the science of Philology. The concept of Sandhi invented in Bharat is now adopted by Western linguists and phonetics arose in the West as a result of the discovery of Sanskrit, to contrast with the haphazard and inadequate Roman alphabet. A century after Panini, Katyayana composed Vartikas on Panini sutras whereas Patanjali (circa 200 BC), wrote the Mahabhaṣya, the ‘Great Commentary’ on Ashtadhyayi and Vartikas to suggest that language was created by Gods and was not subject to human intervention. By avoiding verbs and compounding nouns, a great deal of information was condensed into mnemonic sutras or aphorisms for easy memorization with many plays on the sounds and meanings of words endowed with deep spiritual, philosophical and cosmological significance.
E. H. Johnston remarked:
“The classical poets of India have sensitiveness to variations of sound to which literature of other countries affords few parallels, and their delicate combinations are a source of never ending joy”.
Sir William Jones’ was emphatic:
“The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure, more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a string affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the form of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to from some common source…both the Gothic and Celtic, though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanskrit; and the old Persian might be added to the same family…”
Two professors of Sanskrit, Wilson at Oxford and Lee at Cambridge (cited in Singhal) affirmed that Sanskrit was a language:
“capable of giving a soul to the objects of sense and a body to the abstractions of metaphysics”.
Indeed, remnants of Sanskrit are to be found in practically all languages in personal names, week days, months in a year, and so forth.
Nehru, the first Prime Minister of modern India, was unequivocal:
“If I was asked what is the greatest treasure which India possesses, and what is her finest heritage, I would answer unhesitatingly, it is the Sanskrit language and literature and all that it contains”.
St. James School in London eulogizes Sanskrit and explains its policy thus:
“In St James School in London Sanskrit has been the basis of language teaching because it appears to be the mother of all Indo-European languages, is full of profound concepts, and alone among all tongues has not changed over the millennia……“Sanskrit’ Literally Means ‘Well Formed’ Or ‘Refined.’ It Is A Classical Language Predating Latin And Greek And Has The Ability To Act As A Model, Teaching Children The Fundamental Principles Of Language. Its Grammar Is Thought To Prevail As The Underlying Grammatical System Of Most Indo-European Languages. This Thorough Knowledge Of Grammar Ultimately Gives The Pupils A Greater Clarity And Accuracy In Thinking, Reading And Speaking, Thereby Preparing Them Well For Whatever They Will Undertake In Life.”
Paradoxically, just as the West is waking up to the uniqueness of Sanskrit, the Polity in India is doing its best to get rid of this priceless treasure altogether and to replace it with an inferior medium called English.
Vedic Antiquity and Texts
Vedas form the epitome of spiritual ideation of the ancient Vedic-Hindu homeland and represent the raw energy of the spiritual experience, prior to any systematization, when the intellect had not yet taken toll on the intuitive human thought. The poetry of the Rig Veda is of exceptional literary merit, produced by a refined sacerdotal class following a long period of cultural development. Each hymn may contain a thousand layers of meaning. In learning the Vedic mantras a correct pronunciation was of utmost importance, leading to multiple recessions through different schools (shakha) of oral transmission. Only Brahmins knew this speech to perform sacrifices, much as the gods had done to attain godhood. This mnemonic check and countercheck preserved the Vedas for posterity in an unadulterated form. Vedas became the essential personification of Sanskrit language where linguistics, grammar, etymology and related sciences were so integrated and perfected that they have not been excelled even now anywhere in the world. Philological and linguistic considerations suggest an age of well over 3000 years for the most recent strata but the descriptions of an extremely cold climate lead some to believe that the Vedas are close to 20,000 years old. However, while Swami Dayananda Saraswati concluded that the Vedas were revealed millions of years ago, the Communists have dated them to be as recent as 1200 BC.
Creation in Vedic hymns is described as the work of a divine craftsman via a fire sacrifice. Hymns and mantras were deified as Brihaspati whereas speech was similarly deified as Vac as the feminine principle of the universe sent by Prajapati to be transformed into various objects. Thought was considered internalized speech and compared to a cow with abundant milk; Vedic mantras were considered more purifying than the holy waters. So, words must be chosen carefully for their content of sattva, rajas and tamas qualities because the power of words is not different from the power of thoughts. Thus, the metric hymns or mantras are eternal and creative metaphysical entities that can be read acoustically or astronomically through the same numerology. Mathematical accuracy of grammar assured perfection in pronouncing every syllable in a prayer or sacrificial chant. Tilak was to declare:
“Rig Veda is not a prayer book of Nature worshippers but inspired poetry that reveals the truths of existence. Thus, an ingrained and dominant spirituality, an inexhaustible vital creativity and gust of life and, mediating between them, a powerful, penetrating and scrupulous intelligence combined of the rational, ethical and aesthetic mind each at a high intensity of action, created the harmony of the ancient Indian culture”.
The Vedic age stemmed from pristine ideation by great rishis (seers) who had established their retreats on the banks of river Sarasvati or were associated with the great learning centers in Bharat. The seven rishis were identified with the stars of the Great Bear: Marici, Atri, Angoiras, Pulastya, Pilaha, Kratu and Vashishtha; other important rishis are Narada, Kashyapa, Daksha, Vishwamitra, Brahspati, Agastya, and Bharadwaja. The great learning center at Takshshila (Taxila) hosted Panini (grammar), Patanjali (Yoga), and Nagarjuna (alchemy); other mahaviras (universities) included Nalanda, Vikramshila and Telhara.
The Vedic period may be divided as follows: early Vedic 6000-4000 BC, composition of Rig Veda by Atri; late Vedic 4000-2000 BC, composition of Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda; the age of Vashishtha, Vishvamitra; post-Vedic 3100 BC, beginning of Kaliyuga, the era of Krishna and Maha Bharat War, canonization of Vedas by Vyasa; late Brahmanic, early Sutra 3000 BC, Vedic alters, composition of Brahmanas, Sulbhashastra, Ashtadhyayi, by Baudhaya, Apstamba, Katyayana, Panini and Yaska; late Sutra 2000, decline of Harappa, drying up of Sarasvati. Vedas are sanatan (eternal) and apaurusheya not composed by human entity but uttered by Paramatma at the beginning of every cosmic cycle of Brahma and heard (shruti) by the Great Rishis during intense meditation thus unauthored (apaurusheya) and eternal. Vedas are called shruti, ‘what has been heard’. Through some shamanistic process, the Vedic seers ‘heard’ the Vedic verses, and passed them on in this form. The term shruti forms a pair with the term smriti, ‘what has been remembered’, which refers to the more down-to-earth post-Vedic literature, especially the dharma-sutras, the treatises on the social order.
Vedic literature is vast, containing some 4524 scriptures, and far more abundant than the literature of the rest of the world put together. The four Vedas are followed by six auxiliary Vedangas viz: Shiksha (phonetics, phonology, morphophonology and sandhi), Kalpa (ritual), Vyakarana (grammar), Niruktar (etymology), Chandas (meter) and Jyotish, astronomy). Dhanurveda summarizes the Martial arts and self-defense, later picked up by the Chinese as acupuncture and related disciplines. Stahapatyaveda details architecture, sculpture and geomancy, used especially for Temple design and urban planning. Finally, Gandharvaveda concentrates on music, poetry and dance. The major Upanishads are: Brihadaranyaka, Chandogya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Kaushitaki, Katha, Isa, Kena, Svetasvatara, Mundaka, Prasna, Maitri, and Mandukya. Of the many texts designated Puranas the most important are the Mahapuranas but 18-20 names, totalling 429,000 verses, have been recorded. The eighteen Puranas, dated to the Gupta period, in decreasing order of antiquity are: Brahma, Vayu, Matsya, Brahmanda, Vishnu, Bhagvata, Garuda, Agni, Padma, Linga, Kurma, Markandeya, Bhavisya, Narada, Brahmavaivarta, Varaha, Vamana and Skanda. Add to these Manu Smriti, Artha Shastra, Agama Tantra Sutra, Dharmashastra, Divya Prabandha, Ramacharitmanas, Yoga Vashishtha, Swara Yoga, Shiva Samhita, Samarsar Narpatijacharya, the seven Yamalas, Goraksha Samhita, Panchadasi Vedantasara and various other treatises some of which are mentioned in the text that follows.
Vedas admit 1131 branches and each Vedic branch has a Samhita, Brahmana, Aranayak and Upanishada. Some 108 Upanishads, literally meaning a session, follow Aranyakas and are written as dialogs to inquire about truth behind external world. Then there are 6 Angas,18 Smritis, and 2 Epics as well as Yantras, Tantras, Mantras and Jantris. The sutras and shastras together are known as smriti (remembered) as distinct from earlier Vedic Shruti (heard) revealed directly to the authors. Manu smriti and later smritis (200 BC-200 CE) developed from Dharmashastras and followed the Puranas of 700 BC or so. They are attributed to the primeval sage Manu, nominated by Brahma as the first king, who gave instructions in the sacred law.
The Kalpasutras are detailed instructions for performing rituals and are divided into Srautasutras (great sacrifices), Grhyasutras (ceremonies in the domestic life), Dharmasutras (religious and secular laws), and Sulbhasutras (measurements for altars etc.). Philosophical sutras, besides Samhitas and Brahamanas, consist of several mimamsas (investigation): Purvamimamsa, Uttaramimamsa, Samkhya, Yogasutra, Nyaya and Vaisesika. Arthashastra, Nitishastra, Dandaniti, Rajaniti, etc. deal with practical aspects of life such as administration, economics, politics, arts, techniques, mining etc. The most important Arthashastra of Kautilya (also known as Chanakya), is dated 300 BC and contains 6000 shlokas, 150 chapters and 180 subjects.
Although over fifty thousand manuscripts have been recorded, hitherto, mathematical historian David Pingree has estimated that there exist
“…at present in India and outside of it some million manuscripts on various aspects of jyotishastra…neither cataloged nor translated and constitute a territory that remains remarkably unexplored”.
The brilliant discoverers who harnessed the fundamental principles underlying the fleeting reality were to call themselves Arya in their homeland Aryavarta. In his seminal book titled The Arctic Home in the Vedas, Bal Ganadhar Tilak advanced the theory that the North Pole was the original home of the Aryan people during pre-glacial period which they had to leave around 8000 BC due to the ice deluge BC and had to migrate to the Northern parts of Europe and Asia. This is supported by many Vedic hymns, Avesta (Iran), Vedic chronology, and Vedic calendars. Mount Kailash and Mansarovar were the spiritual homes of the Vedic people, as described in a little known passage in Mahabharata known as Uddyog Parva. Similarly, Valmiki Ramayan describes Antarctica as a land of Yama situated to the south of Lanka, at the end of the earth, white in color because it is covered with snow.
The word ‘Manasarovar’ originates from Sanskrit manas (mind) and sarovar (lake) to personify purity such that one who drinks water from the lake would be cleansed of all his sins committed over even a hundred lifetimes and attain the abode of Lord Shiva after death. Hindu scriptures state that the lake was first created in the mind of the Lord Brahma and then planted onto Earth. It is also believed to be the summer abode of the Hamsa swan which represents wisdom and beauty. Buddhists associate it with the legendary lake known as Anavatapta in Sanskrit and Anotatta in Pali, where Queen Maya is believed to have conceived Buddha. Lord Buddha apparently stayed and meditated near this lake on several occasions. The lake now harbors several monasteries, most notably the ancient Chiu Gompa Monastery, carved straight out of the rock. Lake Manasarovar is also known as ‘The Jewel of Tibet’ in the meditative Tibetan tradition. In Jain scriptures, the Kailash-Manasarovar region is associated with the first Tirthankara Lord Shree Rishabhdev who attained nirvana (moksha) near Ashtapad mountain adjoining the Kailash range. Lake Manasarovar is also mentioned in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib of Sikh faith and can be connected to the Ganga River basin through a fifteen km long tunnel to divert its water for Hindus devotees.
Mount Kailash is a peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdise Mountains) of the Transhimalaya chain in Tibet. It lies near the source of some of the four longest rivers in Asia: Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra and Karnali. The word may be derived from kēlāsa in Sanskrit which means ‘crystal’. According to Vishnu Purana, the four faces of the mountain are made of crystal, ruby, gold, and lapis lazuli. It forms a pillar of the world and is located at the heart of six mountain ranges symbolizing a lotus. In Hindu tradition, the Supreme Lord Shiva sits in a state of perpetual meditation atop Mount Kailash, along with his wife Pārvatī. Many sculptures and relics at Kailasanath temple depict episodes related to Lord Shiva and his consort Parvati, including Ravana's tale. In Jain tradition, Kailash is also known as Meru Parvat or Sumeru. Ashtapada, a peak next to Mount Kailash, is the site where the first Jain Tirthankara, Rishabhadeva, attained Nirvana or moksha. The ancient Koneshwaram temple at Trincomalee is heralded as ‘Dakshina Kailasam’ (Kailash of the South) as it lies on exactly the same longitude as Mount Kailash.
The Bön religion, which predates Buddhism in Tibet, maintains that the entire mystical region and the nine-story Swastika Mountains are the seat of all spiritual power, variously known as Water's Flower, Mountain of Sea Water, and Nine Stacked Swastika Mountain. Tibetan Buddhists call it Kangri Rinpoche or 'Precious Snow Mountain'. Numerous sites in the region are associated with Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava) whose tantric practices are credited with finally establishing Buddhism in Tibet in the 7th–8th century CE. Tantric Buddhists believe that Mount Kailash is the home of the Buddha Demchok (also known as Demchog or Chakrasamvara), who represents the supreme bliss.
From this original habitat, during the pre-Orion period 8000 to 5000 BC, Vedic Aryans moved to what are now Afghanistan and Pakistan and founded the Indus Valley Civilization (ISC) whose origin could go as far back as 15000 BC. During the Orion period, 5000 to 3000 BC, when the vernal equinox was in Orion, Vedic bards still reminisced about the traditions of the original Arctic home but attempts were made to reform the calendar and to systematize the sacrificial rites. During the Krittika period, 3000 to 1400 BC, when the Vernal equinox was in Pleiades, the memory of the original Arctic home had grown dim and was often misunderstood, giving rise to the Sutras and philosophic schools that gained prominence around 1400 to 500 BC.
Whereas the Indus phase can be approximated with reasonable certainty by carbon dating, the original arctic homeland can only be gleaned only by astronomic references in the vast Vedic literature as melting ice leaves no archeological record. The early literature speaks of three constellations: Mrighashira or the Orion (4500-3500 BC, Rig Veda); Rohini or Aldebaran (3100 BC, Maha Bharat), Krittika or the Pleaides (2900-1900 BC, Sutra and Brahamana). The seventh mandala of Rig Veda, which closed the Vedic age, records the vernal equinox in Mrighashira or the Orion era around 4500-3500 BC. The vernal equinox shifted from Mrighashira to Rohini around 3500 BC or a little earlier, as recorded in Aitareya Brahmana as well as in Maha Bharat which speaks of Rohini-Krittika transition. Maha Bharat records that the Rohini-Abhijit pair gave way to Krittika-Dhanishta pair around 3000 BC. Tilak was to observe:
“…we can now decipher these records inscribed on the specially cultivated memory of the Indian Aryans. Commencing with the Taittiriya Samhita and the Brahmanas, which declare that the Phalguni moon was once the New Year’s night, the Mrighashiras was designated by a name which, if rightly interpreted, showed that the vernal equinox coincided with that asterism (constellation) in old times”.
Whereas the Sanskrit scriptures enumerated above were reserved for the priestly class, the Great Epics employed engaging frame tale episodes to weave moral codes and dharma for the masses. Ramayana was composed during the TretaYuga and predates Maha Bharata which records events of Dwapara Yuga. The core events of the epic may be even older, as the names Rama, Sita, Dasharatha, Janaka, Vashishta, Vishvamitra are well known in Brahmanas which are older than the Valmiki Ramayana. The epic Ramayaṇa consists of 24,000 verses or 500 cantos (kandas), written in 32 syllable meters called anustubh. Ramayana is a compound of the words Rama and ayana ‘going, advancing’, translated as ‘Rama's Journey. It is ascribed to a single author, Valmiki (circa 400 BC), who was the inventor of the Vedic poetic meter shloka, used in Sanskrit poetry of latter periods.
Dr. P. V. Vartak, in his book Vastava Ramayan, has shown the existence of Vedic culture as far back as 72,000 BC. Many astronomical references show that the Rig Veda was composed by 23,720 BC whereas Ramayana details events of 8th century BC as the description of the sky, 17 years after the birth of Rama, is astronomically perfect. In Punarvasu Nakshatra (Bala Kanda.18/Shloka 8, 9), Valmiki recorded the birth of Rama as Chaitra Shuddha Navami, when the five planets were positioned thus: Sun in Mesha up to 10 degrees, Mars in Capricorn at 28 degrees, Jupiter in Cancer at 5 degrees, Venus in Pisces at 27 degrees and Saturn in Libra at 20 degrees. Consequently, the birth date of Rama can be extrapolated to 4 December 7323 BC. Valmiki has also beautifully described the sky (Ayodhya 41/10), when Rama left for the exile. He states, "Crux (Trishankhu), Mars, Jupiter and Mercury have cornered the Moon. Vaishakha and Milky Way are shining in the sky".
On the other hand, Pushkar Bhatnagar calculated that the planetary positions for the date of Rama’s birth were in place at 12.30 PM on 10 January 5114 BC. Rig Veda and Sanskrit scriptures mention several other dynasties of kings. Bharat dynasty includes Sudas, the patron of both Vishvamitra and Vashishtha and the hero of the Battle of Ten Kings (circa 3730 BC); Ikshvaku dynasty includes Rama, born 31 (or 32) generations before Brihadbala who was killed by Arjun’s son Abhimanu at Kurukshetra. Taking 20 years per generation, one obtains 3800-3700 BC for Rama and Vashishtha who was Rama’s senior contemporary.
Although the epic has been written off as a myth by the ruling political dynasty in India, Ramayana is geographically very correct. Every site on Rama's route is identifiable and has continuing traditions or temples to commemorate Rama's visit. The route taken by Rama from Ayodhya to Ramaeshwaram is marked by as many as 195 ancient sites testifying to his sojourn across Bharat during the 14 year exile. Rama went to Sri Lanka via some sort of a bridge. Rama Setu, or Adam´s Bridge, is made up of a chain of limestone shoals between the islands of Mannar, in northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameshwaram, off the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu in Bharat. The bridge is 30 miles (48 km) long and separates the Gulf of Mannar (southwest) from the Palk Strait (northeast) and has been documented in a wide range of sources, detailed in my previous books. Ramayana was to permeate around the globe and exerted a profound impact on the lives of people for good. Rama was transformed into Ham, Ramasitoa, Ramadan, Ramsgate, Ramstein, Roma, and so forth, in most religious and secular traditions around the globe.
Maha Bharat, the foremost of the Hindu epics, is the longest and the oldest epic poem in world literature, containing more than 74,000 verses, 110,000 couplets, plus long prose passages, or some 1.8 million words in total. Taken together with the Harivamsa, the Mahabharat has a total length of more than 90,000 verses = fifteen Bibles which stemmed from a shorter version simply called Bharat of 24,000 verses. The earliest known references to the Mahabharata, and its core Bharat, date back to the 6th-5th century BC, in the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Paṇini, and also in the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) and other Vedic literature. However, the earliest testimony of the existence of the full text of the Maha Bharat comes from the Greek Sophist Dion Chrysostom, who mentions that "the Indians possess an Iliad of 100,000 verses". The copper plate inscriptions of the Maharaja Sharvanatha ( circa 533-534 BC) from Khoh (Satna District, Madhya Pradesha), also describe the Maha Bharat as a ‘collection of 100,000 verses’ (shatasahasri samhita). This large body of text was finally committed to writing emphasizing the numbers 18, and 12 and employing the frame tale structure of a story within a story. Maha Bharat's scope and grandeur is best summarized by one quotation from the beginning of its first section.
"What is found here may be found elsewhere. What is not found here will not be found elsewhere".
The Bharat battle describes the dynastic struggle for the throne of Hastinapura between Kauravas and their cousin Pandavas in which kings from all over Bharat participated, along with the Greeks, Bactrians and Chinese. The war was fought for 18 days at Kurukshetra, now in Haryana, when only the Pandavas, Satyaki and Krishna survived. The survivors also included 18,000 warriors along with their wives and children, or a total of 144,000 Yadus and Yadavas who were to become the forefathers of the Jewish people. The Maha Bharat itself ends with the death of Krishna which marks the beginning of the Kali Yuga. According to some accounts, Krishna rose from the dead and led his people to what is now Jerusalem where he ruled as Melchisedec.
The Maha Bharat War has been dated variously from 5561 BC to 800 BC and its history is also linked to the Battle of the Ten Kings in Rig Veda. Dr. Manish Pandit, a nuclear medicine specialist, has declared: 'Lord Krishna existed. School texts are wrong’ (Rediff, 30 August 2009). Krishna was born in 3112 BC, so he must have been 54-55 years old at the time of the battle of Kurukshetra. More than 140 astronomical references in the Maha Bharat were used by B. N. Achar to extrapolate the first day of war to 22 November 3067 BC Dr. Patnaik, had calculated the start of the Mahabharata war to 16 October 3138 BC although Aryabhata approximated the date to be 3100 BC, or just about 5000 years ago. However, Dr. P.V. Vartak comes up with the date of 16th October 5561 BC as the first day of Maha Bharat War, based on 18 mathematical positions including the planetary positions, seasons, the two Amavasyas, two eclipses, the ancient tradition of 'Shravanadini Nakshatrani', Kshaya Paksha, and a Haley’s Comet. Saturn was in Purva, as recited by Vyasa in Mahabharat, confirmed by the positions of Rahu, Mars, Neptune, Uranus, Pluto and Jupiter. Vedic Krishna (Greek Heracles) is recorded by Greeks to have lived 138 generations before Alexander (325 BC); averaging 20 years per generation comes to 20 x 138 =2760 + 325 = 3085 BC. Magasthenes recorded 138 generations between Krishna and Chandragupta Maurya but taking only 20 years per generation some scholars fixed the date of Krishna to 2760 years before Chandragupta. Krishna from Maha Bharat was transformed into Chrisn, Christ, Herakles, Melchidesec and the like.
Although written off as a myth by the ruling Dynasty in India, the historicity of Maha Bharat is well documented as over 35 sites have yielded pottery, antiquities, building structures with drainage systems, iron arrow, and spearheads. The excavations in 1952, revealed the existence of Vidurka-tilla (Vidura’s palace), Draupadi-ki-rasoi (Draupadi’s Kitchen) and Draupadi Ghat, besides copper utensils, iron seals, gold and silver ornaments, terracotta discs and several oblong ivory dice used in the game of chauper. According to the Matsya and Vayu puranas, heavy flooding by the river Ganga destroyed Hastinapur and Nichakshu for which definite archaeological evidence exists. The submergence of Dwarka is described vividly in Maha Bharat. Arjuna asked the residents of Dwarka to vacate the city immediately as it was going to be submerged by the sea. Dwarka (Dvaravati) was submerged six times and the modern-day Dwarka is the 7th such city to be built in the area. Underwater exploration yielded two gate ways, fort walls, bastions and a Jetty at a depth of 10 meters off Dwarka in the Sindhusagar (Arabian Sea); the pottery at Dwarka has been dated to 3520 BC by Thermoluminence. Other finds at Dwarka include bronze and iron implements, a seal, a bull, unicorn and a goat. All of which establish a direct continuity between Dwarka and Harappa. Ancient monuments, dated to the Maha Bharat period, have also been found near Gwalior, Kotwar (Kamantalpur), Kumaon hills (Uttarkhanda), as detailed in my previous books.
A Unique Marvel Called Arya
In Rig Veda (RV), the oldest written document of humanity, the term Arya occurs 36 times, to describe the children of light characterized by a spirit of self-sacrifice for universal good, gentle behavior, good nature, righteous conduct, and defined as:
mahakula kulinarya sabhya sajjana sadhavah.
Arya is also used as an adjective: praja arya jyotiragrah (RV, VII. 33.17) Children of Arya seek and are led by jyoti.
In Ramayana, Valmiki defines Arya as one who cared for the equality of all and was dear to everyone, describing Rama as:
arya sarva samascaiva sadaiva priyadarshanah.
The guiding principles of the Aryas were: Krinvanto Vishwam Aryam (we shall make the world cultured and civilized) and Vasudhaiva Kutumbkum (the whole world is one family). The Aryan spirit is perhaps most evident from the last prayer of an Arya who died in Gobi desert, 5003 BC:
“God, bring me not back, as I was, Let me come as a blade of grass, or a droplet of dew and rain, so this waterless desert bloom again…”
Bhagvata was to epitomize the Aryan ideal as follows:
“I desire not the supreme state of bliss with its eight perfections, nor the cessation of rebirth. May I take up the sorrow of all creatures that suffer and enter into them so that they may be free from grief”.
Sacrifice became the center of Aryan social life performed as yajna around a fire in tapovans that eventually gave way to temples in Hinduism.
“The individual should be sacrificed for the family, the family for the community, and the community for the country”.
Brahmins presided over the yajnas by reciting Sanskrit mantras that personify the cosmic vibrations revealed to the rishis as speech or vac and stemming from the Divine word AUM, extolled thus by Lord Krishna:
“…I am the syllable AUM in all Vedas…”
This Vedic-Hindu personification of God with man is in contrast to the Abrahamic religions where an unfathomable chasm separates man from his Creator who is wholly other. A morning prayer affirms:
“O sun of refulgent glory, I am the same person as makes thee what thou art!”
The legend of Rudra (later called Shiva) affirms:
“God cannot destroy him who has conquered himself”.
God looked in wonder and awe at the spirit of the man who had conquered his self and Rudra asked God:
“Is he then a God like You?”
And God said: “No he is not a God like me, He is Me”.
A beautiful tree is Aryan, the order of the cosmos is Aryan, Buddha called his teaching Aryan, and Jains also call themselves Aryans. Manu clearly says that the Dravidians were also Aryan, as were the Chinese. According to Manudharma Shastra, or Manusmriti (X.43-45), the word Arya during the Vedic age denoted certain spiritual and humanistic values: An Arya was a metaphor for God, incessantly setting modes of behavior by his exemplary conduct. Anyone regardless of birth, race or national origin could become Aryan by following this code of conduct. This is also true of the Brahmin Varna:
“Neither through color, nor through ancestors can the spirit worthy of a Brahmin be generated… No Brahmin is such by birth. No outcast is such by birth. An outcast is such as by his deeds. A Brahmin is such by his deeds”.
At the end of the colonial era, Europeans controlled all world wealth but no explanation as to its genesis because the Bible had kept its adherents in perpetual misery, darkness, poverty, grief, privation and so forth. J. H. Plumb observed:
“In the 19th century all countries of Europe and America were preoccupied with the origins of national identity, with the need to forge a living past that would give meaning not only to the present but also to the future: Macaulay, Bancroft, Michelet…”
The inferiority complex in the European psyche was exacerbated by the Colonial discovery of Bharat as it challenged European self-esteem such that India now became not only the golden bird of unfathomed riches but also the donor of civilization to Mesopotamia, Greece and Egypt. Mount Kailash and Mansarovar were the spiritual homes of the Vedic people, as described in a little known passage in Mahabharata known as Uddyog Parva. However, European Imperialism fought to claim Vedic heritage with the same despotic vehemence by which it had looted world wealth. Nazis claimed to be the original, blue eyed, blonde Aryans although Hitler and the Greeks were anything but that. Next came the British and Chakrabarty summarizes:
“British wanted to appear at the end of a long line of invaders of the land, beginning with the Aryans”.
So, the British now became the original Aryans, who in some distant past had come to instruct the Brahmins although they were to remain the most degenerate of all peoples in their native habitat.
As the world wealth fueled US Imperialism at the end of the Second World War, American Neonazis claimed to be the real Aryans. This scramble for Aryan ancestry is the best proof yet of its eternal timelessness.
In fact, the Aryas from Bharat had colonized Italy 5000 BC and Gaipal had introduced the flute. One source states (cited in Gidwani):
“…imprint they left would later blossom as the fountainhead of European civilization, culture, literature and philosophy…they found repulsive that men married men and women were regarded only as producers of offspring…and that land had neither real rivers nor forests nor tall trees”.
Will Durant concluded:
"India was the mother of our race and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages. She was the mother of our philosophy, mother through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics, mother through Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity, mother through village communities of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all".
The British historian E. P.Thompson was prophetic enough:
"India is perhaps the most important country for the future of the world. All the convergent influences of the world run through this society.... There is not a thought that is being thought in the West or East that is not active in some Indian mind”.
Ayurveda: Mother of World Medicine
Ayurveda evolved from Samkhya philosophy where the universal vibrations of AUM (or OM) differentiated into In the Vedic concept of parasparopagrahajeevaanaam all living beings were mutually interrelated so ecology and environment were to be respected, in contrast to Christian theology where nature was to be enslaved. Vedic Hindus were the first to recognize that plants also have life and kept man in the class of animals. Botany is treated in Vedic texts that also describe plant morphology, classification, physiology, diseases, pathology, reproduction, and so forth. Chandogya Upanishad attempts to classify animals according to their mode of reproduction, the number of senses they possess, physiology and embryology, Zoology was also known.
Important hymns dealing with medical knowledge are Rig Veda: 7.5, 10.97 and 10.162 whereas Atharva Veda hymns in this context are: are 1.3, 1.17, 1.22 – 1.25, 2.3, 2.4, 2.8, 2.31, 2.33, 3.7, 3.9, 4.12, 4.13, 5.4, 5.5, 5.22, 5.23, 6.14, 6.20, 6.21, 6.24, 6.25, 6.44, 6.57, 6.83, 6.85, 6.01, 6.95, 6.105, 6.109, 6.111, 6.127, 6.136, 6.137, 7.74, 7.76, 7.116, 8.7, 9.8, 19.34, 19.35, 19.36, 19.38, 19.39 and many Upanishads. Shrimad Bhagwat Mahapurana, composed 1650 BC, mentions homeopathy, embryology including cloning such that the three Rubhu brothers had prepared a cow from the skin of a cow and a horse from a horse, a feat not yet achieved by modern science. Vasistha and Agasti were developed from a scientific utensil called as Vasatiwara, without any mother, only from the semen of Mitra-Varuna. Gandhari concieved from her husband but could not deliver a child even after two years. Therefore she aborted the embryo. Vyasa cut it into pieces that developed into one hundred Kauravas in vitro.
MahaBharat, Shanti, 301, 320, 331, 356, and the Bhagawata 3/31 state that Shukra (sperm) conjugates with Shonit (ovum) during copulation to produce Kalala (Zygote) within 12 hours of coitus. Bhagawata describes all of the microscopic changes taking place up to 15 days of the embryonic life, in a womb, so confirmed by modern science. This is followed successively by the formation of head (30 days), lower and upper extremities (2 months), nails, hairs, bones, genitalia and skin (3 months), dhatus or tissues (4 months), appearance of hunger and thirst (5 months), fetus rotation (6 months), memory of past lives (7 months). Bhagawata (2/10/17-22, 3/6/12-15 and 3/26/54-60) details the formation of mouth, nostrils, eyes and ears develop, heart appears at the end of the second month all of which is admitted by modern embryology. Chromosomes have described as 23 Gunawidhi and Bhagwat describes problems of infertility, birth, and so forth, not yet approached by modern science. Draupadi and Dhrushtadyumna were test tube babies developed from the sperms of king Drupada, without using any ovum.
Aitereya Upanishada elaborates further: first of all the mouth is formed that spews ‘Vak’ transformed into ‘Agni’. Nostrils appear next and give rise to prana or ‘Vayu’ . Eyes appear next, followed by ears, skin, hair, heart, mind, umbilicus, Apana, penis, ‘Reta’ (the seminal fluid) and Apa which gives rise to another life form. This description of foetal development is surprisingly accurate as compared to the modern embryology. Aitareya describes that directions come from ears. Apana energy pushes everything downwards: of food, defecation, urination, seminal discharge, child birth and finally death. Yoga can reverse Apana, moving it upwards and thus leading to immortality.
Taittiriya Upanishad postulates existence at five levels of consciousness, or Pancha Koshas. The physical body is called Annamaya Kosha, inhabited by inner Koshas and powered by prana. Manomaya Kosha contains mind, thoughts, emotions, passions, feelings etc. Vijnanamaya Kosha stores knowledge which is acquired in life. When Pranamaya Kosha along with all other inner Koshas leave the body, they remain in Bhuva Loka for some time and then enter a new physical body whose brain exhibits knowledge stored in the Vijnanamaya Kosha of the previous body.
Vedic/Hindu anatomy lists 500 of the 513 muscles in the human body, along with ligaments, lymphatics, nerve plexus, adipose tissue, vascular tissue etc. Vedic anatomy included 360 bones, 800 ligaments, 300 veins, 500 muscles, 7 layers of skin, along with sutures, lymphatics, nerves plexus, adipose tissue, vascular tissue etc. Marmas (secret, hidden or vital) in the body are junctions where the flesh, bone, sinews, pipes, and ducts come together, and where the life prana is most concentrated. The 107 marmas have become the cornerstone for acupressure, acupuncture and martial arts. Shrotas are a network of 22 channel systems which permit undisturbed flow of life force and no comparable description is available in any other system of medicine. All this to be contrasted with absurd Greek theories where Aristotle, Plato and other philosophers, described human body like Geocentrism in place of Heliocentrism.
Yoga has been described as a physiological treatise where organs were metaphors for gods. It was recognized that the blood was made out of food and pumped by the heart in all four directions, a full 2500 years before William Harvey was to establish it in Europe in 1628 CE. The constitution of the individual was decided by sperm, ovum, season, food, and gunas, at the time of fertilization, in contrast with the passive role assigned to the female in Greco-Roman and Christian traditions. Hereditary diseases have been described in Sushruta Samhita (24/6) as stemming from vitiation of sperm and ovum. Other branches included Geriatrics, Nosology, and Hypnotism which reached England in 1700 CE.
In view of this penetrating insight regarding human body, diagnosis and treatment were thorough and accurate, some far in advance of Europe even in this day and age. Health ensued from the right combination of gunas or humors that became the established medical theory around the globe until the 17th century CE. as described in Charak Samhita , Sushruta Samhita and more, dated 1000 BC or earlier. Psychology was well developed whereas the Christian West believed that mind is controlled by evil and good; conversion from evil to good is possible only through Divine grace accessible only via the Church. In fact, psychology in the west is a direct borrowing from Hindu or Buddhist psychologists. Jung wrote:
“The Indian religions represented a higher level of development that reflected the maturity of the ancient civilizations of Asia; Europe and its indigenous faiths were younger and so less sophisticated. Just as a person must go through each development al stage to achieve full maturity, so also must each race”.
Hall and Lindzey summarize:
“One of the richest sources of such well formulated psychologies is Eastern religions. Asian religions have at their core a psychology little known to the masses of adherents of the faith but quite familiar to the appropriate ‘professionals’…”
Vedic medicine was both preventive and curative and emphasized hygiene such as washing of hands and mouth. The diagnosis involved the eight fold examination (Pariksha): of Prakriti (face and general appearance), Sara (Tissue Vitality), Nadi (pulse), Jivha (tongue), Shabda (voice), Sparsha (skin), Drka (eye), Mutra (urine) and Mala (stool). In addition, the examination covered body constitution, pathological state, adaptability, psychological constitution, capacity for digestion, exercise, age, daily routine, dietary habits, the gravity of clinical conditions, as well as details of personal, social, economic and environmental situation. Pulse diagnosis was exceptional; Pythagoras learnt these in Bharat and imported them into Greece where no such prior knowledge existed. By contrast, in Europe, Physical diagnosis was introduced only at the end of the nineteenth century when Hospital medicine evolved in France 1789-1848 CE, in contrast to the age old traditions of Ayurveda back to 1000 BC or earlier. Dorothy Chaplin summarizes:
“Long before the year 460 BC, in which Hippocrates, the father of European Medicine was born, the Hindus had built an extensive pharmacopeia and had elaborate treatises on a variety of medical and surgical subjects.”
The paramount importance of food was underlined by both Charaka as Prakrititah Ahita Tama Ahara which mentions 19 types of Viruddha ahara, and by Sushruta under the caption of Ekanta Ahita Ahara which mentions 10 types of viruddha ahara. The underlying maxim was:You are what you eat. Leech therapy was well known as were antibiotics from fungi and antiseptics from neem and other plants. Sushruta lists 760 medicinal plants many of which have now entered the western materia medica
Steroid hormones in urine and Ayurveda preparations were also balanced by Ashwagandha which has also been patented in the US. Rasayana combines chemistry and alchemy whereas Alchemy was pioneered by Adinatha Siddha and Nagarjuna; the latter was compared to magic and therefore heavily censured by Christians. Metals used to heal, strengthen, and protect include gold, silver, iron, mercury etc. In the 16th century, Paracelsus was to emphasize the importance of gold, almost certainly borrowed from Ayurveda, and published Prophecy for the Next twenty Four Years in 1536; he remained a fervent Catholic until his death in 1527. Vaccination was described in Dahnvantari’s Sacteya before the Christian era and came to be known in Europe only in the 18th century. Finally, Kayakalpa was described in Siddha and Ayurveda medical literature as the ultimate fountain of youth, vitality, longevity, higher consciousness and Jivan Mukti. It goes back to thousands of years but was suppressed so severely by the British that few can perform it today.
Sushruta used some 125 different kinds of surgical instruments and described 300 surgical methods. He remarked:
“Surgery is first and highest in the healing art, it is pure in itself, its use can never die, it is a product of the heavens and a sure source of renown on earth (to those who practice it)”.
Asepsis was known in Bharat several thousand years before Leister along with Sterilization and bacteria were conceived as early as sixth century BC. Al Biruni found it strange that earthenware and banana leaves could be used only once and then discarded; two persons did not eat from the same plate. Narcotics from opium and cannabis were used to relieve pain.
Surgery excelled that of all other peoples and places in the world and surgeons accompanied the army in Mahabharata. Bharat surgeons were reputed for caesarian, plastic surgery, skin transplants, hernia, dentistry, amputation, catheterization, Rhinoplasty, craniotomy, prostate resection and cataract removal. Basham summarizes:
“The caesarian section was known, bone setting reached a high degree of skill, and plastic surgery was developed far beyond anything known elsewhere. Ancient Indian surgeons were expert at the repair of nose, ear and lips…Indian surgery remained far ahead of European until the 18th century when the surgeons of the EIC were ashamed to learn the art of rhinoplasty from the Indians”.
By contrast, the first caesarian in Europe was recorded only in the sixteenth century albeit with 100 per cent maternal mortality; the first survivor of the procedure dates back to no earlier than the eighteenth century. The man’s first known trip to the dentist occurred as early as 9,000 years ago when at least nine people had drilled molars at the Mehragarh site (NYT 5 April 2006). The findings, reported in Nature, push back the dawn of dentistry by 4,000 years to around 7,000 BC.
Yoga Sutras were composed by Patanjali around 5000 years BC, based upon Samkhya. Yoga is based on the theory that the main nadis, Ida and Pingala, run along the spinal column in a curved path and cross one another several times. At the points of intersections the two main nadis form strong energy centers known as chakras. In texts dating back to 1000 BC, breath or prana was the prime mover in physiology along with the bile and the pituitary gland. Pranayama (pra = first unit, na = energy and ayama = expansion, extension or restraint) cleanses the lungs, heart and other organs. According to Swami Vishnu Devananda, meditation is "….a continuous flow of perception or thought, just like the flow of water in a river” that brings awareness, harmony and natural order into life. Herbert Benson at Harvard Medical School found that over 2,200 genes were activated differently in the long-time Yoga practitioners relative to the controls, and 1,561 genes in the short-timers compared to the long-time practitioners (TOI 4 July 2008; Scientific American February 1972, Lancet April 1970, Am. J. Physiol. September 1971, Psychosomatic Medicine 1972.
Yoga and Ayurveda were to harness the secret of life, longevity, wellness, the ultimate fountain of youth, vitality, and longevity, and the theory of humors that became the mother of all medical traditions down to the 18th century. Oak has also provided detailed comparison between some English and Sanskrit words: English fever, entrails, nasal, herpes, gland, drop, hiccups, muscle, malignant, osteomalacia, dyspepsia, surgeon, fertility, anesthesia, homeopathy, allopathy are derived from Sanskrit: jwar, antral, naas, serpes, granthi, drups, hicca, mausal, malle, asthi-malashay, dush-pachanashay, salya-jan, falati-iti, anasthashayee, samaeo-pathy, alag-pathy, respectively. P. N. Oak (quoted in Knapp) was to write:
“Thus, a close study of allopathic terminology, whether of ailments, physical organs, symptoms, remedies, or instruments will found to be based on Ayurveda because during the universal unitary Vedic administration it was only Ayurveda which was the sole medical system which was used throughout the world.
Although Britain closed thousands of Ayurveda institutions in India, all but decimated the Kayakalpa, and dubbed Tantra Yoga practice in temples as prostitution, it has now accepted Ayurveda as part of its National Health Service; Yoga is still denounced by the Anglican Church. Here is proof that demonization followed by outright theft and elimination of the original source are the keys to success in the Abrahamic world.
Absurd Tenets of Greek Medicine
Herodotus noted that Babylonians had no physicians - only astrologers and soothsayers: the same word was to denote ‘physician, ‘scribe’ and ‘seer’. Astrology, prayers, amulets and charms were supposed to drive away the powers of darkness which caused disease. Chaldeans believed that demons caused disease so the patients were therefore put on public squares in the hope that passersby would come up with some suggestion. In the Persian tradition, Ahriman created by his evil eye 99,999 diseases in the form of demons and Vendidad, so Ormuzd appealed for aid to Aryaman. Isis and Osiris invented medicine in Egypt and Isis taught it to her son Horus. Romans used simple remedies that required no profession healer; a pater familias was to doctor his own family.
The medical tradition assigned to the Hippocrates in Greece was an idea invented primarily by the British to assert white racial superiority. Greek medical theories were in fact absurd. Empedocles (504-443 BC) maintained that man breathes through the pores of his body, and that heart, not the brain, was the source of consciousness. Hippon felt that fetal bones come from the father and muscles from the mother. In the Greek theory of vision, the eye was supposed to send out a beam on the object for perception. Hippocrates felt that the male sperm was like foam that transmitted breath inside the womb leading to conception. If the environment inside the womb was not suitable, the sperm would escape as gas. The heart was believed to have a respiratory function whereas the lung was believed to be related to blood circulation; vessels along the spinal cord were believed to carry the air-rich blood to the bladder, testicles and penis and during this passage the blood became white sperm as it reached the testicles. The right male testicle was believed to give birth to males and left to females; a woman too was believed to have two testicles.
To Hippocrates menstruation was the absorption of excess blood from the stomach to prevent disease in women. Hippocrates stipulated that the womb was a separate animal inside woman’s body, as described by Plato in Timaeus. The nostrils and the vagina of a woman were thought to be connected by one long hollow tube giving the womb free passage from the top to the bottom of the body. Aristotle (384-322 BC) was the most evil of all Greek philosophers though deified by the Catholic Church to support their own upside down world vision. He believed that the heart was the body’s nerve center, and could never become diseased and Galen also subscribed to this view. He maintained that the female contributed only the passive material to the embryo, chiefly from the menstrual blood, whereas the father provided the ‘Homunculus’ for bodily shape and rational facility. Aristotle held that an embryo resulted from the cooking effect of the male sperm on the female menstrual blood. The embryo that developed in the colder part of the womb lacked the heat to concoct fully and thus became an imperfect female. Some doctors felt that both men and women produce both types of seeds. Aristotle sums up: ‘a woman is, as it were, an infertile male’ (cited in Joshel). Aristotle, in contrast to earlier philosophers, placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than the brain. Aristotle also believed that hair grew from the moisture provided by semen in man’s head and that woman also possessed semen but far less so than men. Aristotle claimed that men had more teeth (detailed in Mayhew and Toohey, and Marks).
Plato, a philosopher and not at all a scientist or medical practioner, tells us that the womb is an animal inside a woman which is desirous of bearing children. A womb was supposed to be floating freely inside the body and could damage the vital organs into which it lodges. Hysteria was supposed to result from the movement of the womb in the body to an area such as the heart, the cure was again sex and progeny but potions, baths, fumigations etc. were also recommended by Hippocratic authors. For Plato, the semen resided in the brain but under false eros it was drawn down the spinal channels to the penis. Perhaps the most ridiculous of all Greek theories was the idea that the eye sent a beam of light towards the object to be perceived , so adopted by the Pythagorean School of Zeno (485-430 BC), Ptolemy (2nd century BC) and Euclid (3rd century BC) although denounced by Epicurus (341-280 BC). Plato further elaborated that the fluid in one eye made it sensitive to the fluid from the other eye.
Surprisingly little was known about the vagina and Roman girls were married off at 12 or even younger, immediately deflowered, and some became pregnant without their first menstrual period. Man was supposed to open the way for the flow of the menstrual blood as vagina was thought to be totally sealed internally. Menses were a type of impure sperm, so the female was really a castrated male. Soranus advised women sex immediately after menstruation if she wanted a child and soon after if she did not wish to conceive. Roman physicians felt that the colostrum was unfit for the neonate and advised against breast feeding until the milk attained its natural consistency; it was considered harmful for 20 days (Soranus) or 40 days (Mnesitheus) to give time to the mother to recover for the production of good quality of milk. Until a thousand years ago, popular birth control methods in the Western world included spitting into the mouth of a frog, eating bees, and wearing the testicles of a weasel. In Cordoba, Spain, supposed to be at the cutting edge of science and medicine, women were told to leap up and down vigorously after sex, and then jump backwards nine times, to avoid conception (International Herald Tribune 10 May 2010).
All ancient and medieval western medicine until the 17th century CE was based upon the theory of humors in Ayurveda. The spice trade brought many Ayurvedic herbs to Europe. Arab medical tradition started with the translations they made from Greek, Latin, Babylonian and Vedic-Buddhist-Jain texts so Ayurveda became well known to the Arab world as early as 700 CE. As a result, Yunani medicine was developed in Baghdad during the 8th century ‘from the ashes of the Alexandrian library’ which contained medical texts from Greece and Bharat.
Paracelsus (1493-1541 CE) of Switzerland introduced chemicals to treat syphilis but he borrowed heavily from Ayurveda; he also came up with the idea that homunculi could be made by placing human sperm plus horse dung into retort and baking it for 40 days. Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723 CE) described ‘animalcules’ which were complete minuscule human beings with their own sex organs who then had their ‘animalcules’ ad infinitum. The Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as of 1900 BC borrowed heavily from Taoism, Buddhism, Neo-Confucianism and Ayurveda but remained static until the modern era. The TCM model of the body is based on the meridian system of Ayurveda where 107 marmas in Sushruta Samhita correspond with the topographical points of the inner vital organs, but their significance was lost due to wrong interpretation and translation of Sanskrit texts. The Tao believed in forcing the semen up the spine to the brain and Han texts professed a similar doctrine. Apparently, Homer and Hesiod also subscribed to similar ideas in a rudimentary form.
Mahan Bharat Lauded in Quotes
In the following quotes, all highlights are mine.
“India is the first nation to have cultivated the sciences, and although black, Allah ranked them above many white and brown peoples. It is a powerful, wealthy, and populous nation known for the wisdom of its people and their abilities in all branches of knowledge”.
“The Indian system of accounting has been the most successful intellectual innovation ever made on our planet…adopted almost universally… far more extensively even than the letters of the Phoenician alphabet which we now employ… nearest thing we have to a universal language.”
“The world owes most to India in the realm of mathematics, which was developed in the Gupta period to a stage more advanced than that reached by any other nation of antiquity. The success of Indian mathematics was mainly due to the fact that Indians had a clear conception of the abstract number as distinct from the numerical quantity of objects or spatial extension…Medieval Indian mathematicians, such as Brahmagupta (seventh century), Mahavira (ninth century), and Bhaskara (twelfth century) understood the import of positive and negative quantities, evolved sound systems of extracting square and cube roots, and could solve quadratic and certain types of indeterminate equations…Mahavira's most noteworthy contribution is his treatment of fractions for the first time and his rule for dividing one fraction by another, which did not appear in Europe until the 16th century…
The debt of the Western world to India in this respect [the field of mathematics] cannot be overestimated. Most of the great discoveries and inventions of which Europe is so proud would have been impossible without a developed system of mathematics, and this in turn would have been impossible if Europe had been shackled by the unwieldy system of Roman numerals. The unknown man who devised the new system was, from the world's point of view, after the Buddha, the most important son of India. His achievement, though easily taken for granted, was the work of an analytical mind of the first order, and he deserves much more honor than he has so far received. Unfortunately, Euro centrism has effectively concealed from the common man the fact that we owe much in the way of mathematics to ancient India. Reflection on this may cause modern man to consider more seriously the spiritual preoccupation of ancient India. The rishis (seers) were not men lacking in practical knowledge of the world, dwelling only in the realm of imagination. They were well developed in secular knowledge, yet only insofar as they felt it was necessary within a world view in which consciousness was held as primary.
Our overall impression is that in no other part of the ancient world were relations between man and man, and man the state, so fair and humane. In no other early civilization were slaves so few in number and in no other ancient law book are their rights so well protected as in Arthashastra. No other ancient lawgiver proclaimed such noble ideas of fairplay in battle as did Manu…To us the most striking feature of ancient Indian civilization is its humanity…Some 19th century missionaries … propagate the fallacy that India is a land lethargy and gloom…Our second general impression of ancient India is that her people enjoyed life, passionately delighting in the things of the senses and the things of the spirit…India was a cheerful land, whose people, each finding a niche in a complex and slowly evolving social system, reached higher level of kindliness and gentleness in their mutual relationships than any other nation of antiquity ”.
“I am convinced that everything has come down to us from the banks of Ganges, astronomy, astrology, metempsychosis, etc…Brahmins are the teachers of Pythagoras, the instructors of Greece and through her of the whole of Europe”.
:”It is impossible any longer to question the priority of the Asiatic writings over our Holy Scriptures…origin of man…on the mountains of Tibet between summits of Himalayas and Caucasus”.
“(Indians) merited all respect as creators of arts, sciences and of all useful institutions…”
“Follow the migrations of mankind form East to West along the sun’s course and along the track of the world’s magnetic currents; observe its long voyage from Asia to Europe, from India to France…At its starting point, in India, the birthplace of races and of religions, the womb of the world…”
“This long period of nearly five thousand years saw the rise and fall of many a civilization, each leaving behind it a heritage of literature, art, philosophy, and religion. But what was the net achievement in the field of reckoning, the earliest art practiced by man? An inflexible numeration so crude as to make progress well-nigh impossible, and a calculating device so limited in scope that even elementary calculations called for the services of an expert. Man used these devices for thousands of years without contributing a single important idea to the system. Even when compared with the slow growth of ideas during the dark ages, the history of reckoning presents a peculiar picture of desolate stagnation. When viewed in this light, the achievements of the unknown Hindu, who sometime in the first centuries of our era discovered the principle of position, assumes the importance of a world event…The discovery of zero will always stand out as one of the greatest single achievements of the human race”; it marked a ‘turning point’ in math, science and industry.
“sciences may be more ancient in India than in Egypt”.
“Fierce and warlike tribes again and again invaded its (India’s) northern plains, overthrew its princes, captured and laid waste its cities, set up new states and built new capitals of their own and then vanished into the great tide of humanity, leaving to their descendants nothing but a swiftly diluted strain of alien blood and a few shreds of alien custom that were soon transformed into something cognate with their own surroundings”.
“In 476, far away in time and place from Charelamgne’s dark, imposing castle in Aachen, beyond the eastern border of Frankland…a Hindu genius was born…A blend of Ptolemy the astronomer, Pythagoras the mathematician and Bacon the rebel. Aryabhata was …a pivotal figure on one of the stranger journeys ever taken by an assemblage of ideas across time and geography…to the west centuries later…landing the great centers of Islamic learning…to portals of Spain, Syria and Sicily”.
We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.
Gavin and Frost:
“The original, Victorian translations of Indian texts are highly biased. Not only did they translate many feminine names as masculine, they also could not comprehend that sexual symbolism was meant to serve as metaphor for spiritual truths. In a time when even table legs had to be covered (literally by cloth and socially by euphemism), and even the glimpse of an ankle was pornographic, those translators went to one extreme or the other. They either gasped in lewd astonishment over the forbidden writing of the Kama Sutra, or suppressed anything vaguely sexual”.
Sir Charles Eliott:
“Scant justice is done to India’s position in the world by those European histories which recount the exploits of her invaders and leave the impression that her own people were a feeble, dreamy folk…But such military or commercial invasions are insignificant compared with the spread of Indian thought…”
“In the high plateau of Eastern Iran, in the oases of Serindia, in the arid wastes of Tibet, Mongolia, and Manchuria, in the ancient civilized lands of China and Japan, in the countries of Malayo-Polynesians, in Indonesia and Malay, India left the indelible impression of her high culture not only upon religion, but also upon art and literature, in a word, all the higher things of spirit”.
“The importance of the creation of the zero mark can never be exaggerated. This giving to airy nothing, not merely a local habitation and a name, a picture, a symbol, but helpful power, is the characteristic of the Hindu race from whence it sprang. It is like coining the Nirvana into dynamos. No single mathematical creation has been more potent for the general on-go of intelligence and power”.
“The peninsula of India would be one of the first peopled countries, and its inhabitants would have all the habits of progenitors of man before the flooding as much as perfection of more of any nation…In short, whatever learning man possessed before his dispersion…may be expected to be found here; and of this Hindustan affords innumerable traces…notwithstanding all…the fruitless efforts of our (Christian) priests to disguise it.”
“the birthplace of all languages, sciences, and arts and positioned the childhood of humanity in India”.
"India conquered and dominated China culturally for two thousand years without ever having to send a single soldier across her border."
“It is India that gave us the ingenious method of expressing all numbers by the means of ten symbols, each symbol receiving a value of position, as well as an absolute value; a profound and important idea which appears so simple to us now that we ignore its true merit, but it’s very simplicity, the great ease which it has lent to all computations, puts our arithmetic in the first rank of useful inventions, and we shall appreciate the grandeur of this achievement when we remember that it escaped the genius of Archimedes and Apollonius, two of the greatest minds produced by antiquity”.
“We do not yet realize that while we are turning upside down the material world of the East with our technical proficiency, the East with its psychic proficiency is throwing our spiritual world into confusion. We have never yet hit upon the thought that while we are overpowering the Orient from without, it may be fastening its hold upon us from within”.
“Vedic sacrifice was meant to capture change in time, separation and unity, belonging and renunciation, permanence and death. Puranas mention 1924 BC for Mahabharat war which marked the end of the Vedic age and which is virtually identical to the drying up of Sarasvati in 1900 BC. Of the 27 or 28 nakshatras in the Vedic tradition, the earliest begins with krittika or the Pleiades; later lists dating from sixth CE begin with Ashvini when the vernal equinox occurred on the border of Revati and Ashvini. Assuming that both refer to the same astrological event, the earliest list belongs to the third millennium BC… The Rigvedic people were in India during the Rohini period of 4000 BC”.
“From Persia to the Chinese Sea, from the icy regions of Siberia to the islands of Java and Borneo, from Oceania to Socotra, India has propagated her beliefs, her tales and her civilization. She has left indelible imprints on one-fourth of the human race…”
"This country was anciently so renowned for knowledge and wisdom that the philosophers of Greece did not disdain to travel thither for their improvement."
“If I were to look over the whole world to find out the country most richly endowed with all the wealth, power, and beauty that nature can bestow – in some parts a very paradise on earth – I should point out to India. If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed some of the choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solutions to some of them which well deserve the attention even of those who have studied Plato and Kant – I should point to India…”
P. N. Oak:
“Ever since alien rule began in India, the Hindu education and socio-economic system was broken into bits. The ancient ideals and demarcated spheres became extinct. Get rich quick and lead a life of luxury and indolence became a common ideal. As a result the whole of humanity has become one seething mass engaged in incessant throatless competition from the teenage to the very day of one’s death…In such a society the birth of a Freud and Karl Marx is inevitable. Bur the very doctrines they formulated were symptomatic of the ills that humanity has been suffering from ever since the Vedic system broke down”.
“(India) the noblest and richest country in the world”.
“Indian civilization has been one of the most pervasive and important influences on human history. To the east, throughout the area we know as Confucian civilization, Indian-derived Buddhism has been an omnipresent influence; in Japan, at the point of Confucian civilization most distant from India, when a family member dies, Buddhist rites are the norm. To the west, and indeed throughout the world, Christianity exhibits a multifaceted Indian legacy. The early Christian Church was structured on Indian models. Every catholic who prays the rosary is following an Indian tradition”.
“We (Aryans) were autochthonous in India, that we born in Aryavarta on the banks or in the region of the reputed Sarasvati…our colony of young adventurers, having emigrated from and left Aryavarta, had colonized distant lands of Asia, Africa, Europe and America”.
"The riches of Asia were incomparably greater than those of the European states. Her industrial techniques showed a subtlety and a tradition that the European handicrafts did not possess. And there was nothing in the more modern methods used by the traders of the Western countries that Asian trade had to envy. In matters of credit, transfer of funds, insurance, and cartels, neither India, nor Persia, nor China had anything to learn from Europe".
“Iif Greek culture had influenced Western civilization, the ancient Greeks themselves were “the sons of Hindu thought”.
R. D. Rawlinson:
“Almost all the theories, religious, philosophical and mathematical, taught by the Pythagoreans were known in India in the sixth century BC”.
If there is one place on the face of earth where all the dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence, it is India.
“Dividing by zero...allows you to prove, mathematically, anything in the universe… that Winston Churchill was a carrot”.
"We find among the Indians the vestiges of the most remote antiquity.... We know that all peoples came there to draw the elements of their knowledge.... India, in her splendour, gave religions and laws to all the other peoples; Egypt and Greece owed to her both their fables and their wisdom”.
“To know my country, one has to travel to that age when she realized her soul and thus transcended her physical boundaries, when she revealed being in a radiant magnanimity which illuminated the eastern horizon, making her recognized as her own by those in alien shores who were awakened into a surprise of life…”
In the 17th century) “Even in the smallest villages rice, flour, butter, milk, beans and other vegetables, sugar and sweetmeats can be procured in abundance”.
“India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, The mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grandmother of tradition…Whatever sphere of the human mind you may select for your special study, whether it be language, or religion, or mythology, or philosophy, whether it be law or customs, primitive art or science, you have to go to India (Because) some of the most valuable and instructive material of the history of man are treasured up in India and India only."
“I will omit all discussion of the science of Hindus…discoveries that are more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians; and of their valuable methods of calculation which surpass description. I wish only to say that this computation is done by means of nine signs. If those who believe, because they speak Greek, that they have reached the limits of science, should know of these things, they would perhaps be convinced, even if a little late in the day, that there are also others who know something of value”.
“1) A common source for Pythagorean and Vedic Mathematics (Sulbhashastra) is to be sought either in the Vedic mathematics or in an older Mathematics very much like it. 2) The view that Vedic mathematics is a derivative of Old Babylonia having been rejected; a common source for this mathematics, different from Old Babylonia of 1700 BC, was indicated. 3) Thus, what we regard as the two main sources of Western mathematics, namely Pythagorean mathematics and Old Babylonian mathematics, both flow from a still older source”.
“The Sulbhashastras have geometric algebra…Greece and India have a common heritage that cannot have been derived from Old Babylonia, i.e., Old Babylonia of about 1700 BC”.
“In geometry it (Sulbhashastra) knew the theorem of Pythagoras and how to convert a rectangle into a square. It knew the isosceles trapezoid and how to compute its area. It had a facility with whole numbers and knew some number theory centered on the existence of Pythagorean triples. It had a canonical solution for the circling of the square: and in its attempts to square the circle, it learned to compute a square root…The arithmetical tendencies here encountered were expanded, and in connection with observations on the rectangle led to Babylonian mathematics. A contrary tendency, namely a concern for exactness of thought (or the myth of its importance), together with a recognition that arithmetic methods are not exact, led to Pythagorean mathematics.
The elements of ancient geometry found in Egypt and Babylonia stem from a ritual system of the kind observed in Sulbhashastra…Sanskrit scholars do not give me a date so far back as 1700 BC (for Sulbha). Therefore I postulate a pre-Old-Babylonian source for the kind of geometric rituals we see preserved in the Sulbhashastras, or at least for the mathematics involved in these rituals”.
“The elements of ancient geometry found in Egypt and Babylonia stem from a ritual system of the kind observed in Sulvashastra”…Sanskrit scholars do not give me a date so far back as 1700 BC (for Sulba). Therefore I postulate a pre-Old-Babylonian source for the kind of geometric rituals we see preserved in the Sulvashastras, or at least for the mathematics involved in these rituals”.
“The Hindu Religion is the only one of the world’s great faiths dedicated to the idea that the cosmos itself undergoes an infinite number of deaths and rebirths…Its cycles run from our ordinary day and night to a day and night of Brahma, 8.64 x 109 years, longer than the age of the earth or the sun, and about half the time since the Big Bang”.
“When men of science become interested in the history of Science, their interest is generally focused upon the immediate past, or what we might call ‘modern’ science, however this may be defined. They may choose to begin it with the western reinvention of typography (1450), or with Copernicus or Vesalius (1543), or with Keppler (1609-19) and Galileo (1632-38), or with Newton (1687), or…”
“Greek Geometry was derived from the Sulbhas” and even Britannica notes: “…the bulk of the intellectual tradition originating with Pythagoras himself belongs to mystical wisdom rather than scientific scholarship”.
"All history points to India as the mother of science and art,"
Alfred N. Whitehead:
“The point about zero is that we do not need to use it in the operations of daily life. No one goes out to buy zero fish. It is in a way the most civilized of all the cardinals, and its use is only forced on us by the needs of cultivated modes of thought”.
"The contact with poets, forest saints and the best wits of the land, the glimpse into the first awakening of Ancient India's mind as it searched, at times childishly and naively, at times with a deep intuition, but at all times earnestly and passionately, for the spiritual truths and the meaning of existence - this experience must be highly stimulating to anyone, particularly because the Hindu culture is so different and therefore so much to offer…Not until we see the richness of the Hindu mind and its essential spirituality can we understand India....India was China's teacher in religion and imaginative literature, and the world's teacher in trigonometry, quadratic equations, grammar, phonetics, Arabian Nights, animal fables, chess, as well as in philosophy, and that she inspired Boccaccio, Goethe, Herder, Schopenhauer, Emerson, and probably also old Aesop".